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A world-wide meta- analysis involving the results of 88 clinical trials determined breast cancer recurrence outcomes 5-20 years after endocrine therapy. Endocrine therapy has proven quite beneficial for breast cancer therapy, even significantly reducing breast cancer recurrence in estrogen-receptor-positive patients when administered adjuvantly for five years. Furthermore, extending the time for which adjuvant endocrine therapy
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In a recent systematic review, researchers evaluate the roles of hormones in overtraining syndrome. Trained athletes are aware that recovery periods away from training are just as significant as the time spent training. Inadequate rest and nutrition can lead to overtraining syndrome (OTS) among athletes, compounding problems concerning muscle fatigue, hormone, and metabolic function. An
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A study looked at the perceived barriers to implementing lifestyle changes for preventing heart disease among different socio-demographic populations. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a leading cause of morbidity and death in many countries. It is well-studied that a healthy lifestyle leads to a 67-72% lower risk of developing heart failure and that 80% of CVD
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A descriptive study of food advertisement seeks to understand product promotion in the realm of online marketing strategies. Food and beverage giants influence poor dietary choices in both developed and undeveloped countries. The disconnect between nutrition and health may lie in the comprehensive online marketing strategies of food companies, which tailor their sales approach differently
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Botulinum toxin manufacturers recommend avoiding anticoagulants during therapy. Researchers recently conducted a clinical trial to evaluate the risk. Botulinum toxin (BT), also known as Botox®, is a neurotoxin that is commonly used for cosmetic and muscle relaxation therapies. Once injected into muscle tissue, BT quickly inactivates surrounding nerves causing muscle paralysis which reduces muscle tension.
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Researchers study whether practicing tai chi – an ancient form of Chinese martial arts – might help older adults reduce their risk of accidental falls. Often referred to as a “moving meditation”, tai chi is an ancient Chinese practice that centers on developing flexibility and whole body coordination. The martial art had been previously reported
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Researchers evaluated the safety and efficacy of ACE inhibitors and statins for the treatment of urinary albumin in adolescent type 1 diabetics.   Abnormally high urinary levels of albumin – a protein normally abundant in blood, but rare in urine – are associated with an increased risk of kidney dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Adolescent type
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Researchers from Toronto reveal an innovative approach to study brain changes linked to working memory loss in people with Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementia Dementia is a general term for the loss of memory and other cognitive skills. Unlike cognitive impairment associated with normal aging, the cognitive decline associated with dementia is serious enough
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Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by hallucinations, delusions, and confused thinking. A new study published in JAMA Psychiatry assessed whether inflammation was associated with an increased risk of developing schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder affecting approximately 0.7% of the population. Individuals with schizophrenia often experience hallucinations and delusions and fail to understand
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In a recently published review, researchers examine the relationship between parenting behaviours and childhood snacking. Childhood overweight and obesity have drastically increased over the past several decades. There are many factors that have likely contributed to this pattern, including activity levels, food availability, parenting practices and others. Research has shown that snacking can be a
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A recent study examines if a high-dose vitamin D3 supplement could replenish vitamin D stores in deficient heart failure patients. Roughly 600,000 Canadians currently live with heart failure and 50,000 new cases are diagnosed each year. The cost of the disease burden amounts to $2.8 billion annually.1 Prognosis is generally poor with an average one-year
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A study is investigating whether resistance training exercises or yoga has more beneficial effects on the wellbeing of patients with Parkinson’s. Parkinson’s disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease which now affects more than ten million people globally. Whilst physical symptoms of this chronic illness are typically treated with medications which replace dopamine to
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Childhood obesity prevention is increasingly becoming a public health priority. This study examines parent experiences as they relate to childhood obesity. The obesity prevalence found among Latino children has been reported to be extremely high. The parents of these children are often of low income and living in urban communities, but even if educated they
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A study published in The New England Journal of Medicine assessed changes in brain anatomy and structure of astronauts after short and long spaceflight. During spaceflight, astronauts experience a phenomenon called microgravity, which is the feeling of weightlessness. It has been shown that microgravity can lead to the ‘visual impairment and intracranial pressure’ (VIIP) syndrome,
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One could argue that human history has been shaped by infectious diseases caused by pathogens. In a recent article published in BMC Biology, researchers answer the questions what are pathogens and what have they done for us? Micro-organisms are all around us and even live inside us. Amazingly, the human body contains as many bacterial
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Researchers recently investigated the long-term effectiveness of diabetes prevention approaches on the incidence of diabetes-related mortality and morbidity. Currently, diabetes affects over 415 million adults worldwide and this is expected to increase to as many as 642 million adults by the year 2040. Since diabetes treatment cost the US healthcare system over $245 billion in
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Research attempts to unpack the attitudes of patients in adopting active surveillance as a treatment option for slow-growing prostate cancer. Over 20,000 Canadians were diagnosed with prostate cancer in 2016, making it the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men. A patient receiving a diagnosis of prostate cancer is a frightening position, and understandably they may
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Clinicians review the availability and potential misuse of prescription-strength topical steroids in the United States. Topical steroids are used to treat inflammatory conditions of the skin, such as eczema. They are available in varying potencies. Low potency topical steroids may be available for purchase without a prescription. Topical steroids can cause systemic side effects such
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A study investigates the potential relationship between whole-grain and fruit and vegetable food groups with healthy kidney function. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a global public health problem that is typically associated with high blood pressure and diabetes. CKD can lead to cardiovascular disease and consequently result in death. Consumption of whole grains, fruits, and
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Researchers investigated whether extremely high levels of HDL cholesterol are associated with increased mortality in men and women. HDL cholesterol, often known as “good” cholesterol, is known to have an inverse relationship with cardiovascular disease and mortality—higher HDL cholesterol levels are associated with lower cardiovascular disease. Randomized clinical trials, however, have failed to prove that
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Diabetes is a common metabolic disorder. Researchers recently examined if diabetes is also associated with higher cancer incidence. Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that is estimated to affect 7% of Canadians (approximately 2.1 million) according to Statistics Canada. Diabetics suffer from uncontrolled blood glucose levels due to complications releasing insulin, a blood glucose regulating hormone.
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